Exegetical Psychology

The Exegetical Anatomy of the Spirit │ New Testament

Exegetical Psychology


Under construction, incomplete, not proof read

The exegetical anatomy of the spirit demands our attention because we must know about life in the spirit. Careful study of the spirit will provide help for daily living in fellowship with God. 


Section One

The Spirit In Us

1.1 God Forms. God forms the spirit of man within him. 1Zechariah wrote: מַשָּׂ֥א דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל נְאֻם־יְהוָ֗ה נֹטֶ֤ה שָׁמַ֨יִם֙ וְיֹסֵ֣ד אָ֔רֶץ וְיֹצֵ֥ר רֽוּחַ־אָדָ֖ם בְּקִרְבֹּֽו. The term וְיֹצֵ֥ר (Qal participle) means forms, just as God formed every best of the field and bird of the sky (Genesis 2:19). Aaron used gold to form a calf (Exodus 32:4).

Section Three

The Human Spirit

God formed the human spirit within us. 

x.1 Poor in Spirit.  Jesus said the poor in spirit are blessed, because their is the kingdom of the heavens. 2In Matthew 5:3, Jesus used the term “οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι.” The word for “poor” may mean humble. In any event, the idea is that the kingdom of the heavens is theirs. Jesus used a simple copula “ἐστιν” describing their present possession of the kingdom. Spirits have different qualities, and the poor in spirit are saved people.

x.2 Eager Spirit. Jesus described an eager spirit in the disciples as He commanded them to watch and pray. 3In Matthew 26:41 and Mark 14:38, Jesus used the term ” πρόθυμον” to indicate they were eager in spirit. Their flesh (” σὰρξ”), however, was weak (“ἀσθενής”). The flesh and the spirit oppose one another at times. The flesh acts like an obstacle to the desires of the spirit, particularly in relationship to obedience to Christ.



Section Three

Jesus and His Spirit

x.1 Spiritual Perception. The spirit of Jesus perceived in the His spirit the reasonings in the hearts of his opponents. Notice that the spirit here knows supernaturally the reasonings in the heart. Therefore, one function of the spirit is to perceive reasonings in the hearts of other people. 4In Matthew 2:8 Jesus immediately knew (“εὐθὺς ἐπιγνοὺς”) in His  spirit (“τῷ πνεύματι αὐτοῦ”) that his opponents were reasoning (“διαλογίζονται”) in their hearts (“ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν”).

x.2 Groaned in Spirit. Jesus groaned deeply  in His spirit because the present generation sought a sign. 5In Mark 8:12 Jesus groaned deeply (” ἀναστενάξας”) in His spirit (“τῷ πνεύματι αὐτοῦ”).

x.3 Released His Spirit. Jesus had a human spirit, like we have a human spirit. Jesus released the spirit at the precise moment established by God. 6In Matthew 27:50 Jesus cried out with a loud voice and released the spirit (“ἀφῆκεν τὸ πνεῦμα”).



Section Four

John the Baptist

x.1 Spirit and Power of Elijah. John the Baptist went before Jesus in the spirit and power of Elijah to turn the hearts of fathers upon children and disobedient by thoughts of righteousness. 7In Luke 1:17 John the Baptist went before in the spirit and power (“ἐν πνεύματι καὶ δυνάμει”) of Elijah to turn the hearts (“καρδίας”) of fathers upon children and disobedient by thought of righteousnesses (“φρονήσει δικαίων”). John the Baptist operated in the spirit and power of Elijah to turn hearts by changing the thought to righteousness.



Section Five

Spiritual Emotions

x.1 Exult. The spirit of Mary exulted (“ἠγαλλίασεν”) in God our Savior (Luke 1:47). The spirit of saints exult. This exultation indicates that the spirit has great emotions and expresses them. The spirit also understands the spiritual relationship with God our Savior.



Section Six


x.1 Power. John the Baptist kept growing more powerful in spirit (‘ἐκραταιοῦτο πνεύματι'”) (Luke 1:80). The spirit of man has spiritual power and it may grow over time.

Section Six

Know and Spirit

2.1 Mind and SpiritFor what one among men knows the things of the man except the spirit of the man which is in him ? (1 Corinthians 2:11). In this verse, we learn that only the spirit of a man knows what is in a man. 8Paul used the term “οἶδεν”–perfect, active, indicative. The spirit of man knows the things of man. Paul had just shown that the Holy Spirit searches out. 9Paul used the term “ἐραυνᾷ”–present, active, indicate to describe the activity of the Holy Spirit searching out all things, even the depths of God. In Romans 8:27, God wrote that the He Who searches the hearts knows what the thoughts. 10Paul used the term “φρόνημα” meaning thoughts. of the Holy Spirit. Notice the link to the God searching the hearts. 11Paul used the term “καρδίας” and identified the heart as the focus of the search. Paul also used the term “ἐραυνῶν”–present active participle. In Revelation 2:23, Jesus searches the hearts and minds. 12John wrote: ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἐραυνῶν νεφροὺς καὶ καρδίας.  The term “νεφροὺς” (kidneys) indicates it is different from the “καρδίας” and should not be confused. Finally, in 1 Peter 1:11 we see that the prophets were seeking to know. 13Peter wrote: “ραυνῶντες εἰς τίνα ἢ ποῖον καιρὸν ἐδήλου τὸ ἐν αὐτοῖς πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ προμαρτυρόμενον τὰ εἰς Χριστὸν παθήματα καὶ τὰς μετὰ ταῦτα δόξας·”.

Section Seven

Spirit and Death of the Body

x.1 Returned. The spirit (“πνεῦμα”) of the child returned to her and she arose immediately and received food (Luke 8:55). The spirit departs upon the death of the body.

x.2 Out Spirited. On the cross Jesus bowed His head placed His spirt (“πνεῦμά”) into the hands of His Father. 14Jesus placed (“παρατίθεμαι”) His spirit in to the hands (“χεῖράς”) of His Father by prayer. Having finished His prayer, Jesus then out spirited (“ἐξέπνευσεν”). 15Jesus released His spirit as a deliberate act, at just the right time; the destination of His Spirit was His Father’s hands. Jesus first placed His spirit into the hands of His Father in prayer, and then consciously released His spirit from His body.

Section Eight

Spirit and Sight

x.1 Seen. After the resurrection, the disciples gathered together in a room and shut the doors for fear of the Jews. When Jesus appeared in that room with the doors closed, the disciples thought they were seeing a spirit (“πνεῦμα”) (Luke 24:37). People may think they are seeing a spirit, but not necessarily.

x.2 Touch and See. After the resurrection Jesus invited the disciples to touch Him and see His resurrected body. Jesus said that spirit (” πνεῦμα”) does not have flesh (“σάρκα”) and bone (“ὀστέα”), which He had (Luke 24:39). Spirits cannot be touched, and they do not have flesh and bone.

Section Nine

Spiritual Birth

x.1 That born of flesh is flesh. That born of the Spirit is spirit (John 3:6). Jesus explained to Nicodemus the difference between flesh (“σάρξ”) and spirit (“πνεῦμά”). At the moment of being born from above, the persons becomes a new spiritual being, having been born of the Holy Spirit of God.


nThe Holy Spirit and Prophecy

The Holy Spirit and Prophecy

Section Three

The Holy Spirit and Prophecy

Section Four

The Human Spirit



The New Testament Chart of the Term Spirit

I have constructed a chart of New Testament verses concerning the spirit. I have used very stilted Greek translations to try to convey some of the original flow of the text and to practice some verbal correspondence among terms. I do not recommend constructing a New Testament translation on any stilted Greek translations. I am doing so for my limited purposes to highlight the use of the terms, without any smoothing of the translation for English readers. A good English translation would have very careful smoothing to be more readable, while keeping the integrity of the words translated. As always, plenary, verbal inspiration of the text makes all the difference. In other words, God revealed specific words in the autographs and we must study those autographs to understand the revelation of God in detail. Translations always carry some bias and often propagate huge theological errors. I am reminded that geneticists used to refer to “junk DNA” in cells because they did not understand the function of that DNA. Now, further study reveals that we do not have junk DNA in our cells, we just had junk science labeling some DNA junk solely because they did not understand its proper function. Likewise, we have theological junk created by people who do not study the words in the Bible that they translate. Until we do careful exegesis of psychological terms, we will continue to have junk theology in translations and counseling practice.

Chart of the Usage of the Term Spirit in the New Testament

VerseGreekTranslationMeaning Point
Matthew 5:3Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶνBlessed the poor in the spirit, because theirs is the kingdom of the heavensPoor in spirit people have a place in the Kingdom of HeavenSpirits have a place in the Kingdom of Heaven
Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38γρηγορεῖτε καὶ προσεύχεσθε, ἵνα μὴ εἰσέλθητε εἰς πειρασμόν: τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενήςWatch and pray, that you may not enter into temptation; but the spirit eager but the flesh weakSpirit may be strong to resist temptation, but the flesh is weak; Spirit wills to resist temptationSpirit wills to resist temptation to stop watching and praying, but the flesh is weak. Spirit eager to resist temptation.
Matthew 27:50ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς πάλιν κράξας φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ἀφῆκεν τὸ πνεῦμαbut Jesus again crying out voice loud released the spiritJesus released His spirit voluntarily and diedSpirit may be consciously released
Death means spirit left body
Mark 2:8καὶ εὐθὺς ἐπιγνοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ πνεύματι αὐτοῦ ὅτι οὕτως διαλογίζονται ἐν ἑαυτοῖς λέγει αὐτοῖς, Τί ταῦτα διαλογίζεσθε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶνand immediately perceived Jesus in the spirit of him that such were reasoning in themselves, said to them, Why this reasoning in the hearts of you?The spirit of Jesus perceived the reasoning of other peopleSpirit may perceive the reasoning of other people
Mark 8:12καὶ ἀναστενάξας τῷ πνεύματι αὐτοῦ λέγει, Τί ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη ζητεῖ σημεῖον; ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, εἰ δοθήσεται τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ σημεῖον.
and groaning deeply in the spirit of Him, He says, What the this generation seeks a sign; truly I say to you, will a sign be given to this generation?Jesus had a spirit
Jesus groaned deeply in His spirit
People made Jesus groan deeply in His spirit
Luke 1:17καὶ αὐτὸς προελεύσεται ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν πνεύματι καὶ δυνάμει Ἠλίου, ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίας πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα καὶ ἀπειθεῖς ἐν φρονήσει δικαίων, ἑτοιμάσαι κυρίῳ λαὸν κατεσκευασμένονand he went forth before him in spirit and power of Elijah, he to turn hearts of fathers to children and disobedient into thought righteous, to prepare to Lord people constructedJohn the Baptist worked in the spirit and power of ElijahOne person may in the spirit of another person with power to work for God
Luke 1:47καὶ ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πνεῦμά μου ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ τῷ σωτῆρί μου,and exulted the spirit of me to the God to the SaviorThe spirit of saints like Mary exult in God their SaviorSpirits exult in God as their Savior
Luke 1:80Τὸ δὲ παιδίον ηὔξανεν καὶ ἐκραταιοῦτο πνεύματι, καὶ ἦν ἐν ταῖς ἐρήμοις ἕως ἡμέρας ἀναδείξεως αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν ἸσραήλAnd the child kept growing and kept increasing in power in spirit, and was in the wilderness until the day of designation to the Israel. John kept growing more powerful in spiritPeople may continue to grow more powerful in spirit
Luke 8:55καὶ ἐπέστρεψεν τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτῆς, καὶ ἀνέστη παραχρῆμα, καὶ διέταξεν αὐτῇ δοθῆναι φαγεῖνand returned the spirit of her and she arose immediately and He ordered to her be given to eat.And her spirit returned, and she arose immediately, and He ordered to be given to her to eat.People have a spirit. People’s spirit departs at death. Jesus made the spirit return to her and He gave orders to give her food to eat.
Luke 23:46καὶ φωνήσας φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν, Πάτερ, εἰς χεῖράς σου παρατίθεμαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου: τοῦτο δὲ εἰπὼν ἐξέπνευσενAnd crying out with a voice loud, Jesus said, Father, into the hands of you I place the spirit of me. And having said this, He out spirited.Jesus placed His spirit into the Father’s hands. He caused His spirit to go out of Him.Jesus willed His spirit to leave and be placed into the hand of His Father
Luke 24:37πτοηθέντες δὲ καὶ ἔμφοβοι γενόμενοι ἐδόκουν πνεῦμα θεωρεῖνBut they were terrified and frightened they were becoming, and supposed to see a spiritSpirits may be seen at timesSpirits may be seen at times
Luke 24:39ἴδετε τὰς χεῖράς μου καὶ τοὺς πόδας μου ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι αὐτός: ψηλαφήσατέ με καὶ ἴδετε, ὅτι πνεῦμα σάρκα καὶ ὀστέα οὐκ ἔχει καθὼς ἐμὲ θεωρεῖτε ἔχονταSee the hands of me and the feet of me that I Myself am He. Touch Me and see, the spirit flesh and bone not has like you are seeing I am havingSpirits do not have flesh and bonesSpirits lack flesh and bones
John 3:6τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς σάρξ ἐστιν, καὶ τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος πνεῦμά ἐστιν.
That having been born of the flesh flesh is; and that having been born of the Spirit spirit is.That which is born of the Spirit is spiritSaints have a new spirit after rebirth
John 4:23ἀλλὰ ἔρχεται ὥρα, καὶ νῦν ἐστιν, ὅτε οἱ ἀληθινοὶ προσκυνηταὶ προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ πατρὶ ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ: καὶ γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ τοιούτους ζητεῖ τοὺς προσκυνοῦντας αὐτόνBut comes hour and now is, that the true worshipers worship to Father in spirit and in truth; for also the Father these seek the worshipers Him. True worshipers worship the Father in spirit and in truthSaints worship in spirit and the Father seeks such worshipers
John 4:24πνεῦμα ὁ θεός, καὶ τοὺς προσκυνοῦντας αὐτὸν ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ δεῖ προσκυνεῖν.Spirit the God, and the ones worshiping Him in spirit and in truth must to worshipGod is spirit; people must worship God in spirit and truthGod is spirit.
Saints must worship God in spirit and in truth.
John 6:63ὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν τὸ ζῳοποιοῦν, ἡ σὰρξ οὐκ ὠφελεῖ οὐδέν: τὰ ῥήματα ἃ ἐγὼ λελάληκα ὑμῖν πνεῦμά ἐστιν καὶ ζωή ἐστινThe Spirit is the life maker, the flesh profits nothing; the word which I have spoken to you spirit is and life is.Jesus spoke words which are spirit and lifeThe words of Jesus are spirit and life; the flesh profits nothing
John 11:33Ἰησοῦς οὖν ὡς εἶδεν αὐτὴν κλαίουσαν καὶ τοὺς συνελθόντας αὐτῇ Ἰουδαίους κλαίοντας, ἐνεβριμήσατο τῷ πνεύματι καὶ ἐτάραξεν ἑαυτόνTherefore Jesus while He saw her weeping, and the Jews who came to her weeping, deeply moved in the spirit and troubled himselfWeeping moved the spirit of JesusWeeping touched and moved the spirit of Jesus
John 13:21Ταῦτα εἰπὼν [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς ἐταράχθη τῷ πνεύματι καὶ ἐμαρτύρησεν καὶ εἶπεν, Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι εἷς ἐξ ὑμῶν παραδώσει μεHaving said these things, He was troubled in spirit and testified and said, Truly, truly I say to you that one of you will betray MeJesus became troubled in spirit and testified that truly one of them will betray HimJesus was troubled in spirit. Betrayal troubled troubled the spirit of Jesus and He spoke about it.
John 19:30ὅτε οὖν ἔλαβεν τὸ ὄξος [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν, Τετέλεσται: καὶ κλίνας τὴν κεφαλὴν παρέδωκεν τὸ πνεῦμαTherefore when He had received the sour wine, Jesus said, It Has Been Finished and He bowed His head and gave up the spirit.Jesus has a spirit. He gave it up on the cross. It had been finished. Jesus a spirit. Jesus gave up His spirit on the cross.
Acts 7:59καὶ ἐλιθοβόλουν τὸν Στέφανον ἐπικαλούμενον καὶ λέγοντα, Κύριε Ἰησοῦ, δέξαι τὸ πνεῦμά μουand they continued stoning the Stephen the one calling and saying, Lord Jesus, receive the spirit of meStephen requested that Lord Jesus receive his spirit as he was stoned to deathJesus receives spirits at death
Acts 17:16Ἐν δὲ ταῖς Ἀθήναις ἐκδεχομένου αὐτοὺς τοῦ Παύλου, παρωξύνετο τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ θεωροῦντος κατείδωλον οὖσαν τὴν πόλινBut in the Athens waiting for them the Paul was stirred up the spirit of him in His observation full of idols was the city.The spirit of Paul was stirred up by seeking all the idols filling AthensSpirits can be stirred up within a man by the sight of a city full of idols
Acts 18:25οὗτος ἦν κατηχημένος τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ κυρίου, καὶ ζέων τῷ πνεύματι ἐλάλει καὶ ἐδίδασκεν ἀκριβῶς τὰ περὶ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, ἐπιστάμενος μόνον τὸ βάπτισμα ἸωάννουThis man had been instructed in the way of he Lord and fervent in spirit kept on speaking and teaching accurately things concerning Jesus, knowing only the baptism of John. Teachers may be fervent in spirit and teach accurately Spirits may be fervent and produce accurate teaching, based upon limited knowledge
Acts 19:21Ὡς δὲ ἐπληρώθη ταῦτα, ἔθετο ὁ Παῦλος ἐν τῷ πνεύματι διελθὼν τὴν Μακεδονίαν καὶ Ἀχαΐαν πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα, εἰπὼν ὅτι Μετὰ τὸ γενέσθαι με ἐκεῖ δεῖ με καὶ Ῥώμην ἰδεῖνNo having been fulfilled these things, the Paul purposed in the spirit having passed through Macedonia and Achaia to go to Jerusalem, saying, that after the things come upon me there and I to see Rome.Paul purposed in spirit to go to JerusaelmSpirit may have purpose and plans for travel
Acts 20:22καὶ νῦν ἰδοὺ δεδεμένος ἐγὼ τῷ πνεύματι πορεύομαι εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ, τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ συναντήσοντά μοι μὴ εἰδώςand now behold I having been bound in spirit I go to Jerusalem, I know not what things in Jerusalem will happen to me. Paul was bound in spirit to go to JerusalemSpirits may be bound to do something, perhaps on a mission to somewhere
Acts 23:9ἐγένετο δὲ κραυγὴ μεγάλη, καὶ ἀναστάντες τινὲς τῶν γραμματέων τοῦ μέρους τῶν Φαρισαίων διεμάχοντο λέγοντες, Οὐδὲν κακὸν εὑρίσκομεν ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τούτῳ: εἰ δὲ πνεῦμα ἐλάλησεν αὐτῷ ἢ ἄγγελοςAnd occurred an uproar great, and arose some of the scribes of the party of the Pharisees protesting violently, saying, Nothing evil we have found in the man this one; but if a spirit spoke to him or an angel? People believed that spirits spoke to peopleSpirits may speak to people
Romans 1:9μάρτυς γάρ μού ἐστιν ὁ θεός, ᾧ λατρεύω ἐν τῷ πνεύματί μου ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὡς ἀδιαλείπτως μνείαν ὑμῶν ποιοῦμαFor God is my witness, whom I serve in the spirit of me in the Gospel of His Son, as to unceasingly mention of you I makePaul served God in his spirit the Gospel of Jesus ChristWe serve God in spirit by preaching the Gospel of His Son
Romans 8:10εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνηνBut if Christ in you, then the body dead because sin but the spirit alive because of righteousnessRighteousness makes the spirit aliveRighteousness makes the spirit alive, in contrast to sin which makes the body dead
Romans 8:15οὐ γὰρ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα δουλείας πάλιν εἰς φόβον, ἀλλὰ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας, ἐν ᾧ κράζομεν, Αββα ὁ πατήρ:For not you received a spirit of slavery again to fear, but you received spirit of sonship in which we cry, Abba, the FatherWe received not a spirit of slavery, but a spirit of sonship, in which we cry, Abba, FatherWe do not have a spirit of slavery. We did receive a spirit of sonship, and so i that spirit we cry, Abba, Father
Romans 8:16αὐτὸ τὸ πνεῦμα συμμαρτυρεῖ τῷ πνεύματι ἡμῶν ὅτι ἐσμὲν τέκνα θεοῦ.The Spirit Himself jointly testifies with our spirit that we are children of GodOur spirit testify that we are children of God and the Holy Spirit joins that testimonySpirits may cry out, Abba, Father
The Holy Spirit testifies with our spirit that we are the children of God
Romans 11:8καθὼς γέγραπται, Ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς πνεῦμα κατανύξεως, ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ ὦτα τοῦ μὴ ἀκούειν, ἕως τῆς σήμερον ἡμέραςeven as it has been written, God gave them a spirit stupor, eye which not to see and ears which not to hear, until today dayGod gives spirits to people; God gave some a spirit of stupor so that they would not see nor hear, lasting until this very daySpirit of stupor can deafen and blind a person; God gives a spirit of stupor to some people
Romans 12:11τῇ σπουδῇ μὴ ὀκνηροί, τῷ πνεύματι ζέοντες, τῷ κυρίῳ δουλεύοντεςIn the diligence not lazy, in the spirit fervent, in the Lord servingGod wants saints to be fervent in spiritSpirit may be fervent in serving the Lord and not lacking diligence
1 Corinthians 2:11τίς γὰρ οἶδεν ἀνθρώπων τὰ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰ μὴ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ; οὕτως καὶ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐδεὶς ἔγνωκεν εἰ μὴ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ.
For who has known of men things of the man except the spirit of the man, the one in him. Likewise also the things of God no one has known except the spirit of God.The spirit in a man knows the things of man just like the spirit of God knows the things of GodSpirit knows the things of man. The Spirit of God knows the things of God.
1 Corinthians 4:21τί θέλετε; ἐν ῥάβδῳ ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ἢ ἐν ἀγάπῃ πνεύματί τε πραΰτητος;What you will? With rod I come to you or in love with spirit of gentlenessPeople may have a spirit of gentlenessSpirit of gentleness may control people, but people choose what spirit
1 Corinthians 5:3ἐγὼ μὲν γάρ, ἀπὼν τῷ σώματι παρὼν δὲ τῷ πνεύματι, ἤδη κέκρικα ὡς παρὼν τὸν οὕτως τοῦτο κατεργασάμενονFor even though I absent in the body, but present in the spirit, already have judged as present the one committed this.People may be present in spirit, absent in bodySpirit has no bounds, present in spirit while absent in body from a location; present in spirit also allows action taken elsewhere
1 Corinthians 5:4ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου [ἡμῶν] Ἰησοῦ, συναχθέντων ὑμῶν καὶ τοῦ ἐμοῦ πνεύματος σὺν τῇ δυνάμει τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν ἸησοῦIn the name of our Lord Jesus Christ your assembled, and the of me spirit with the power of the Lord our JesusPaul in spirit joined the assembled Corinthians with the power of the Lord JesusPeople may join an assembled group in spirit with the power of the Lord Jesus to deliver a person to satan
1 Corinthians 5:5παραδοῦναι τὸν τοιοῦτον τῷ Σατανᾷ εἰς ὄλεθρον τῆς σαρκός, ἵνα τὸ πνεῦμα σωθῇ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ κυρίου.
to deliver such a one to satan to the destruction of flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lordsatan may destroy flesh, but the spirit will be saved in the day of the Lordsatan has power over bodies, but cannot do anything after the flesh dies; saints may have their bodies killed by satan, but their spirit will be saved in the day of the Lord
1 Corinthians 6:176


ὁ δὲ κολλώμενος τῷ κυρίῳ ἓν πνεῦμά ἐστιν.
but the one who is joined to the Lord one spirit is salvation brings a unit of spirit between God and the saintsThe spirit of the saint can be joined to the spirit of the Lord
1 Corinthians 7:34καὶ μεμέρισται. καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἄγαμος καὶ ἡ παρθένος μεριμνᾷ τὰ τοῦ κυρίου, ἵνα ᾖ ἁγία καὶ τῷ σώματι καὶ τῷ πνεύματι: ἡ δὲ γαμήσασα μεριμνᾷ τὰ τοῦ κόσμου, πῶς ἀρέσῃ τῷ ἀνδρί.

and have been divided. The woman the unmarried and the virgin care about the things of the Lord, the she may be holy both in the body and in the spiritholiness applies to the body and the spiritspirits may be holy, like the body may be holy
1 Corinthians 14:2ὁ γὰρ λαλῶν γλώσσῃ οὐκ ἀνθρώποις λαλεῖ ἀλλὰ θεῷ, οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἀκούει, πνεύματι δὲ λαλεῖ μυστήρια:
For the one speaking in tongue not to men speaks, for no one understands, but in spirit he speaks mysteriesIn spirit one speaks mysteries in a tongue–revelations from God; no one understands himThe Spiritual Gift of Tongues operates i the spirit of the saint to speak mysteries–revelations from God hidden in the past, but now revealed
1 Corinthians 14:14ἐὰν [γὰρ] προσεύχωμαι γλώσσῃ, τὸ πνεῦμά μου προσεύχεται, ὁ δὲ νοῦς μου ἄκαρπός ἐστινfor if ipray in tongue, the spirit of me prays, but the mind of me unfruitful isThe Spiritual Gift of Tongues operates in the spirit, but the mind is different from the spirit; the mind is unfruitful while the spirit is actively speakingThe Spiritual Gift of Tongues distinguishes the mind from the spirit; The Spiritual Gift of Tongues operates in the spirit, and the mind does not participate nor understand what is being said; the spirit and the mind remain very separate; the soul can do things incomprehensible to the mind
1 Corinthians 14:15τί οὖν ἐστιν; προσεύξομαι τῷ πνεύματι, προσεύξομαι δὲ καὶ τῷ νοΐ: ψαλῶ τῷ πνεύματι, ψαλῶ δὲ καὶ τῷ νοΐ.

What then is? I will in the spirit, but I will also in the mind; I will sing praise in the spirit and also I will sing praise in mindSaints pray in the spirit and pray with the mind; saints sing in the spirit and sing in the mind alsoOur minds are not the same as our spirits, but both of them can participate together in singing praise and praying
1 Corinthians 14:16ἐπεὶ ἐὰν εὐλογῇς [ἐν] πνεύματι, ὁ ἀναπληρῶν τὸν τόπον τοῦ ἰδιώτου πῶς ἐρεῖ τὸ Ἀμήν ἐπὶ τῇ σῇ εὐχαριστίᾳ, ἐπειδὴ τί λέγεις οὐκ οἶδενOtherwise if you bles in spirit, the one filling the place of the ungifted how to say the Amen in your giving thanks; because he does not know what you speak If you bless in the spirit, no one knows what you are sayingThe spirit speaks mysteries, praises and worships God, but without the mind, observers cannot understand the speech. Therefore, we know some speech and worship come from the spirit, but are unintellible to the ungifted
1 Corinthians 14:32καὶ πνεύματα προφητῶν προφήταις ὑποτάσσεταιand spirits of prophets to prophets to be subjectSpirits of prophets are to be subject to prophetsProphets have spirits and those spirits must be subject to prophets
1 Corinthians 15:45οὕτως καὶ γέγραπται, Ἐγένετο ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν: ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζῳοποιοῦν.

So also it has been written, Became the first man, Adam, into soul living, the last Adam into spirit life making. eis plus accusative motionJesus, the last Adam, brought life into spirit.Jesus, the last Adam, became a life-making spirit. Adams became a living soul. Soul and spirit are very different.
1 Corinthians 16:18ἀνέπαυσαν γὰρ τὸ ἐμὸν πνεῦμα καὶ τὸ ὑμῶν. ἐπιγινώσκετε οὖν τοὺς τοιούτους.For they refreshed the spirit of me and the of yours; recognize such ones. People can refresh the spiritPeople can refresh a spirit with spiritual ministry
2 Corinthians 2:13ἀνέπαυσαν γὰρ τὸ ἐμὸν πνεῦμα καὶ τὸ ὑμῶν. ἐπιγινώσκετε οὖν τοὺς τοιούτουςFor I have had no rest in the spirit of me, in that Titus, the brother of me, not to find me, but parting with them I went out to MacedoniaNot finding someone you seek may deprive your spirit of rest Spirits may not rest with the concern over not finding or being found by someone
2 Corinthians 4:13ἔχοντες δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα τῆς πίστεως, κατὰ τὸ γεγραμμένον, Ἐπίστευσα, διὸ ἐλάλησα, καὶ ἡμεῖς πιστεύομεν, διὸ καὶ λαλοῦμεν,
But having the same spirit of the faith, according to the Scriptures, I believed, therefore I spoke, and we ourselves believe, and therefor we also speakPaul had the same spirit of faith which caused him to believe and then speakThe spirit of faith causes people to speak after believing
2 Corinthians 7:1ταύτας οὖν ἔχοντες τὰς ἐπαγγελίας, ἀγαπητοί, καθαρίσωμεν ἑαυτοὺς ἀπὸ παντὸς μολυσμοῦ σαρκὸς καὶ πνεύματος, ἐπιτελοῦντες ἁγιωσύνην ἐν φόβῳ θεοῦ.
Therefore, having these, the promises, beloved, we may cleanse ourselves from all flesh and spirit defilement, perfecting sanctification in fear of GodThe promises of God cleanse both the flesh and the spirit, and have the power to perfect holiness in the fear of God as we cleanse ourselvesBoth flesh and spirit may be defiled; through the promises of God, we may cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit. Perfecting holiness in the fear of God means that we cleanse ourselves believing the promises
2 Corinthians 7:13διὰ τοῦτο παρακεκλήμεθα. Ἐπὶ δὲ τῇ παρακλήσει ἡμῶν περισσοτέρως μᾶλλον ἐχάρημεν ἐπὶ τῇ χαρᾷ Τίτου, ὅτι ἀναπέπαυται τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ πάντων ὑμῶν:
Because of this we have been comforted. And upon our comfort, we rejoiced especially more over the joy of Titus, because has been refreshed the spirit of him by means of all of you.Corinthians refreshed the spirit of Titus. In turn, Paul and the ministry team were comforted, plus they rejoiced even more for the joy of Titus, having been refreshed by the Corinthians.Spirits may be refreshed by the ministry of other people, which has an effect of bring comfort and greater joy.
2 Corinthians 12:18παρεκάλεσα Τίτον καὶ συναπέστειλα τὸν ἀδελφόν: μήτι ἐπλεονέκτησεν ὑμᾶς Τίτος; οὐ τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι περιεπατήσαμεν; οὐ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἴχνεσιν;
I urged Titus to go and I sent the brother with him. Titus took no advantage of you, right? Not in the same spirit we walked? In the same footsteps?Saints can walk in the same spirit.Saints can walk in the same spirit, as Paul and the ministry team conducted themselves in the same spirit; the proper spirit prevents people taking advantage of other people
Galatians 6:18Ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν, ἀδελφοί: ἀμήν.
The grace of the Lord our Jesus Christ be with the spirits of you, brethren. Amen.The grace of Jesus may be with the spirit of people. It also forms a nice benediction.The grace of the Lord Jesus joins with our spirits and influences us as we let it.
Ephesians 1:17ἵνα ὁ θεὸς τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ πατὴρ τῆς δόξης, δώῃ ὑμῖν πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως ἐν ἐπιγνώσει αὐτοῦThat the God of the Lord our Jesus Christ, the Father of the glory, may give to you spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of himGod gives a spirit of wisdom and revelation to saints. We may pray for God to give saints that spirit of wisdom and revelationGod gives the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of HIm
Ephesians 2:2ἐν αἷς ποτε περιεπατήσατε κατὰ τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, κατὰ τὸν ἄρχοντα τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος, τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ νῦν ἐνεργοῦντος ἐν τοῖς υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείαςIn which you used to walk according to the age of this world, according to the prince of the authority of the air, of the spirit which now working in the sons of the disobedienceThe sons of disobedience have a spirit working in them producing a walk according to this age, according to the prince of the power of the airThe spirit at work in the sons of disobedience produces a walk of disobedience, according to the age of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air
Ephesians 4:23ἀνανεοῦσθαι δὲ τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ νοὸς ὑμῶν,
to be renewed in the spirit of the mind of youRenewal takes place in the spirit of the mindThe mind has a spirit.
The spirit of the mind may be renewed.
Philippians 1:27Μόνον ἀξίως τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τοῦ Χριστοῦ πολιτεύεσθε, ἵνα εἴτε ἐλθὼν καὶ ἰδὼν ὑμᾶς εἴτε ἀπὼν ἀκούω τὰ περὶ ὑμῶν, ὅτι στήκετε ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι, μιᾷ ψυχῇ συναθλοῦντες τῇ πίστει τοῦ εὐαγγελίου,Only worthy of the Gospel of the Christ conduct yourself, that whether I, come and see you or if absent, I hear the things about you, that you stand in one spirit, in one soul striving together in the faith of the Gospel.Saints can stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving together for the faith of the GospelSaints may stand united in one spirit, striving united in one soul for the faith of the Gospel
Philippians 4:23ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν.The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ with the spirit of you.The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ can be with you. You can also pray for other saints to have that same grace with their spirit.The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ can be with your spirit. You can also pray for other saints that the same grace may be with them. Grace can be with your spirit.
Colossians 2:5εἰ γὰρ καὶ τῇ σαρκὶ ἄπειμι, ἀλλὰ τῷ πνεύματι σὺν ὑμῖν εἰμι, χαίρων καὶ βλέπων ὑμῶν τὴν τάξιν καὶ τὸ στερέωμα τῆς εἰς Χριστὸν πίστεως ὑμῶνFor if in flesh I am absent, but in spirit with you I am, rejoicing and seeing of you the order and steadfastness of the faith in Christ of you.Although Paul was absent in the flesh from the Colossians, he was present in spirit and rejoicing and seeing the order and steadfastness in their faith in Christ.Flesh and spirit are not the same. Your spirit may be present with people geographically far away, and rejoicing and seeing their faith and steadfastness in their faith in Christ. Notice that spirits see and rejoice.
1 Thessalonians 5:23Αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ θεὸς τῆς εἰρήνης ἁγιάσαι ὑμᾶς ὁλοτελεῖς, καὶ ὁλόκληρον ὑμῶν τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ καὶ τὸ σῶμα ἀμέμπτως ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τηρηθείηBut may the God of peace Himself sanctify you ultimately, and whole being kept your the spirit and the soul and the body blameless in the appearing of the Lord our Jesus Christ.Paul prays that the God of peace would sanctify the saints entirely. For Paul, this entire sanctification sanctifying the spirit, soul and body, and keeping them who, without blame, at the appearing of Christ Jesus.Paul distinguished the spirit, the soul, and the body. We should follow that distinction because words matter. Sanctification occurs in the body, the spirit, and the soul. The keeping work of the God of Peace including sanctifying the spirit, the soul and the body.
2 Timothy 1:7οὐ γὰρ ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν ὁ θεὸς πνεῦμα δειλίας, ἀλλὰ δυνάμεως καὶ ἀγάπης καὶ σωφρονισμοῦFor God has not given to us a spirit of timidity, but of power and love and sound judgmentGod gave us a spirit of power, love and sound judgment, not timidityGod gave us a spirit of power, love and sound judgment, not timidity
2 Timothy 4:22Ὁ κύριος μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματός σου. ἡ χάρις μεθ’ ὑμῶν.The Lord with your spirit. The grace with you.The Lord can be with our spirit.People can pray that the Lord be with our spirit.
Philemon 1:251
Ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν
The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ with your spiritThe grace of the Lord Jesus Christ can be with our spiritPeople can pray that the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit
Hebrews 4:12Ζῶν γὰρ ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐνεργὴς καὶ τομώτερος ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν μάχαιραν δίστομον καὶ διϊκνούμενος ἄχρι μερισμοῦ ψυχῆς καὶ πνεύματος, ἁρμῶν τε καὶ μυελῶν, καὶ κριτικὸς ἐνθυμήσεων καὶ ἐννοιῶν καρδίαςFor living the word of God and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and penetrating as far as the divison of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and able to judge thoughts and intentions of heartGod’s word divides soul from spirit, and judges the thoughts and intentions of the heart. One may argue that thoughts relate to the soul and intentions relate to the spirit, but I have my doubts about that view.Soul and spirit are not the same and may be divided by the word of God. Therefore, the word of God has the ability to pierce and separate the activity of the soul from the activity of the spirit. The heart has thoughts and intentions and stands distinguishable from soul and spirit.
Hebrews 12:9εἶτα τοὺς μὲν τῆς σαρκὸς ἡμῶν πατέρας εἴχομεν παιδευτὰς καὶ ἐνετρεπόμεθα: οὐ πολὺ [δὲ] μᾶλλον ὑποταγησόμεθα τῷ πατρὶ τῶν πνευμάτων καὶ ζήσομεν;

but the of flesh of our fathers we have as instructors, not much more be subject to the Father of the spirit and live?God is the Father of spiritsGod is the Father of spirits , and He instructs us
Hebrews 12:23καὶ ἐκκλησίᾳ πρωτοτόκων ἀπογεγραμμένων ἐν οὐρανοῖς, καὶ κριτῇ θεῷ πάντων, καὶ πνεύμασι δικαίων τετελειωμένωνto assembly of firstborn enrolled in heavens and to Judge God of All and to spirits righteous made perfect Saints have come to assembly of firstborns in heavens and to Judge God of All and to righteous, perfected spiritsSaints have come to assembly of firstborn, and to Judge God of All and to righteous, perfected saints
James 2:26ὥσπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα χωρὶς πνεύματος νεκρόν ἐστιν, οὕτως καὶ ἡ πίστις χωρὶς ἔργων νεκρά ἐστινFor just as the body without spirit dead is, so also the faith without works dead is.The body without spirit is dead. Notice that the spirit did not die, the body died.When the spirit leaves the body, the body dies. The spirit is essential to the body living.
1 Peter 3:4λλ’ ὁ κρυπτὸς τῆς καρδίας ἄνθρωπος ἐν τῷ ἀφθάρτῳ τοῦ πραέως καὶ ἡσυχίου πνεύματος, ὅ ἐστιν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ πολυτελέςBut the hidden man of the heart in the imperishable of the gentle and quiet spirit, which is before the God very preciousAn spirit may be in a heart. A spirit may be gentle and quiet. A wife’s spirit may be gentle and quiet, even when the husband disobeys the word. Every wife should know that a gentle and quiet spirit in the hidden heart is very precious to God. God values some spirits very highly.In a bad marriage, where the husband disobeys the Word of God, the wife may have a gentle and quiet spirit in her hidden heart, which produces wholesome behavior. Such spirit is very precious before God, Who sees the behavior, the heart and the spirit.
1 Peter 3:18ὅτι καὶ Χριστὸς ἅπαξ περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν ἔπαθεν, δίκαιος ὑπὲρ ἀδίκων, ἵνα ὑμᾶς προσαγάγῃ τῷ θεῷ, θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ ζῳοποιηθεὶς δὲ πνεύματι:that also Christ once for sins suffered, just for unjust, that you He may lead to God having been put to death in flesh but having been made alive in spiritJesus was put to death in the flesh, but made alive in spirit. Jesus died once for sins, by being put death in the flesh, but made alive in spirit. Jesus had a spirit, and it was made alive at death.
1 Peter 4:6 εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ νεκροῖς εὐηγγελίσθη ἵνα κριθῶσι μὲν κατὰ ἀνθρώπους σαρκὶ ζῶσι δὲ κατὰ θεὸν πνεύματι.For to this also dead ones have been evangelized, that though may have been judged according to men in flesh, but they may live according to God in spirit God evangelizes dead people, so that even though they have been judged according to men in the flesh, but they may live according to God in spirit.God evangelizes dead people still in the flesh, but condemned as men by God, but made alive according to God in the spirit.
The spirit becomes alive through evangelization.
1 John 4:6ἡμεῖς ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐσμεν: ὁ γινώσκων τὸν θεὸν ἀκούει ἡμῶν, ὃς οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ἀκούει ἡμῶν. ἐκ τούτου γινώσκομεν τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς πλάνης.We are of the God; the ones knowing the God hear us; the ones not are of God no hear us. Of this we know the spirit of the truth and the spirit of the error.The spirit of truth and the spirit of error determines whether someone listens to the apostles of Jesus and the saints.The spirit of truth and the spirit of error inhabit people. Believers have the spirit of truth and listen to God speaking through people.
Revelation 22:6Καὶ εἶπέν μοι, Οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι πιστοὶ καὶ ἀληθινοί, καὶ ὁ κύριος, ὁ θεὸς τῶν πνευμάτων τῶν προφητῶν, ἀπέστειλεν τὸν ἄγγελον αὐτοῦ δεῖξαι τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ ἃ δεῖ γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει.

And he said to me, These the words, faithful and true, and the Lord the God of spirits of the prophets sent the angels of Him to show the servants of Him what must comet to be in quicknessGod is the Father of the spirits of prophetsGod is the Father of the spirits of the prophets
Zechariah 12:1מַשָּׂ֥א דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל נְאֻם־יְהוָ֗ה נֹטֶ֤ה שָׁמַ֨יִם֙ וְיֹסֵ֣ד אָ֔רֶץ וְיֹצֵ֥ר רֽוּחַ־אָדָ֖ם בְּקִרְבֹּֽו׃The burden of the word of Yahweh concerning Israel. Thus declares Yahweh who stretches out the heavens, and who founds the earth, and forms the spirit of man within him;Yahweh forms the spirit of man within him, like He made the heaves and the earthGod forms the spirit of man within him